M.A. Krongauz. THE FAREWELL FORMULA DAVAY IN SYNCHRONIC AND DIACHRONIC ASPECTS
Language etiquette, politeness, wishing, farewell formula, compression.
The article shows a possible way to form a formula for saying goodbye, which comprises two parallel processes: the transformation of a wish into a formula for saying goodbye and the compression of this formula. The transformation consists of a wish gravitating towards the end point in the dialog, and later fixation in this position. Compression consists of dropping off parts of a formula up to collapsing into a single word.
The modern form of the imperative mood davay is clearly perceived as an incentive made by the speaker to the interlocutor and it fits in the same row with colloquial formulas of farewell bud’ and byvay. However, we see that in the prototypical formula (davay + the pronoun in the dative case + God + noun in the accusative case) the verb is not addressed to the interlocutor, but to God or the universe. It is impossible to assert that the phrases like Davay tebe Bog schact’a! have become the only source of the modern formula davay for saying goodbye. Nevertheless, it is important to have a stable predecessor formula that performs the same function (that is, not only one of a wish, but also of a farewell).